BEST WATER HEATERS IN ORANGE COUNTY CA
WATER HEATERS, DRAINS, BATHROOMS, KITCHENS, TOILET REPAIR
LEAKS, BATHROOMS, KITCHENS, PIPING, REPIPING, INSTALLATION
OF TUBS, SINKS, DRAINS, JACUZZIS, BATHTUBS, SHOWERS, TOILETS,
FLOODING, WATER SOFTENERS, WATER FILTERS, APPLIANCE INSTALLATION,
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WATER PURIFICATION SYSTEMS, REVERSE OSMOSIS, VALVES, KITCHEN
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Viejo 92656, 92698, Anaheim 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804,
92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814, 92815,
92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899, Atwood, 92811, Brea,
92821, 92822,92823, Buena Park, 90620 ,90621,90622, 90624,
Capistrano Beach, 92624, Corona del Mar, 92625, Costa Mesa,
92626, 92627, 92628, Cypress, 90630, Dana Point, 92629,
East Irvine, 92650, El Toro, 92609, Foothill Ranch, 92610,
Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728, Fullerton, 92831, 92832,
92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838, Garden Grove,
92840, 92841, 92842, 92843 ,92844, 92845, 92846, Huntington
Beach , 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649, Irvine,
92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92617,
92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92697, La Habra, 90631, 90632,
90633, La Palma, 90623, Ladera Ranch, 92694, Laguna Beach
, 92651, 92652, Laguna Hills ,92653, 92654,92607,92677,
Laguna Woods, 92637,Lake Forest, 92630, Los Alamitos, 90720,
90721, Midway City, 92655, Mission Viejo, 92690, 92691,
92692,Newport Beach , 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662,
92663, 92657, Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92862, 92863,
92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869, Placentia, 92870,
92871, Rancho Santa Margarita 92688, San Clemente, 92672,
92673, 92674, San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92693, Santa Ana
, 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705 ,92706, 92707, 92711,
92712, 92725.92735, 92799, Seal Beach , 90740, Silverado
92676, Stanton, 90680, Sunset Beach 90742, Surfside 90743,
Trabuco Canyon, 92678, 92679, Tustin ,92780, 92781,92782,
Villa Park, 92861, Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685, Yorba
Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887
HEATER MISSION VIEJO CA, MISSION VIEJO WATER HEATER, WATER
HEATERS MISSION VIEJO, WATER HEATER REPAIR MISSION VIEJO,
WATER HEATER REPLACEMENT MISSION VIEJO, NEW WATER HEATER
MISSION VIEJO, VOTED BEST WATER HEATERS IN ORANGE COUNTY
CA, Bradford White, Storage Water Heaters, Reservoir Water
Heaters, Standard Water Heaters, Tank Water Heaters, Replacement
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has been specializing in the service, repair and installation
of water heaters for OVER 18 YEARS.
repair and replacement option because we have good service and
honest prices. If you are curious we can also talk to you about
which water heater and brand meets your needs and how efficient
it will be for you and your family. We will be glad to be of
we tell you the truth because we want lifetime customers and
not a quick buck. We want to be the person you call, recommend
and depend on showing up for your plumbing needs and emergencies.
HE DID A GREAT JOB!"
is a very reliable plumber. He knows everythng about your plumbling
and will get the job done correctly, quickly, neatly, and reasonably.
He came out to our house for a leaking water heater, while we
were out of state he arrived within 15 minutes of our call!
He did a great job for a friend who I referred to him. I would
definitely recommend art for any of your plumbing needs." -
Marian, Lake Forest CA
for taking care of my customers. As a general contractor it
is very important to have the right companies to refer to your
best customers. You have always shown up on time and were able
to find and fix the problem very quickly and at a reasonable
cost." - Pat, Lake Forest CA
CLEAN AND PROFESSIONAL!"
am a general contractor and Art has worked for me several times.
His work is always very clean, professional and very reasonably
priced. I have been told several times that Art does not always
push the expensive fixes, but what is the best for the customers.
I highly recommend Art for all of your plumbing needs."
Owen, Mission Viejo CA
most things in life, it's not quite that simple. Give
us a try, we hope we can serve you with your WATER HEATER needs
so you can be happy with us and your problem is solved. Our
ultimate compliment is telling somone to give use a call because
we did a really good job for you!
Municipal water feed 2: Fluid from water storage tank
to external (passive) heat source; passive heat source
can be the ground (soil or groundwater), sun or air via
heat pump, or thermodynamic
solar panel 3: Fluid from heat pump, or thermodynamic
solar panel to water storage tank 4: Pump, actuator, controller
and other parts 5: Water heater 6: Water storage tank
7: Hot water to domestic appliances
is a thermodynamic
process that uses an energy source to heat water above its
initial temperature. Typical domestic uses of hot water include
cooking, cleaning, bathing, and space heating. In industry,
hot water and water heated to steam
have many uses.
water is traditionally heated in vessels known as water
heaters, kettles, cauldrons, pots,
or coppers. These metal vessels that heat a batch of
water do not produce a continual supply of heated water at
a preset temperature. Rarely, hot water occurs naturally,
usually from natural hot springs. The temperature varies with
the consumption rate, becoming cooler as flow increases.
that provide a continual supply of hot water are called water
heaters, hot water heaters, hot
water tanks, boilers,
heat exchangers, geysers,
or calorifiers. These names depend on region, and whether
they heat potable or non-potable
water, are in domestic or industrial use, and their energy
source. In domestic installations, potable
water heated for uses other than space heating is also called
domestic hot water (DHW).
petroleum gas, oil),
or solid fuels
are commonly used for heating water. These may be consumed
directly or may produce electricity
that, in turn, heats water. Electricity to heat water may
also come from any other electrical source, such as nuclear
power or renewable
energy. Alternative energy such as solar
water heat recycling, and geothermal
heating can also heat water, often in combination with
backup systems powered by fossil fuels or electricity.
populated urban areas of some countries provide district
heating of hot water. This is especially the case in Scandinavia
and Finland. District
heating systems supply energy for water heating and space
heating from waste heat from industries, power
geothermal heating, and central
solar heating. Actual heating of tap water is performed
in heat exchangers at the consumers' premises. Generally the
consumer has no in-building backup system, due to the expected
high availability of district heating systems.
of water heating appliances
tank-type storage water heater (US)
used for space heating may be heated by fossil fuels in a
boiler, while potable
water may be heated in a separate appliance. This is common
practice in the US, especially when warm-air space heating
is usually employed.
water heaters (tank-type)
furnace (top) and storage water heater (bottom) (Germany)
and commercial usage, most North American and Southern Asian
water heaters are the tank type, also called storage water
heaters, these consist of a cylindrical vessel or container
that keeps water continuously hot and ready to use. Typical
sizes for household use range from 75 to 400 liters (20 to
100 US gallons). These may use electricity,
or other energy sources. Natural gas heaters are most popular
in the US and most European countries, since the gas is often
conveniently piped throughout cities and towns and currently
is the cheapest to use. In the United States, typical natural
gas water heaters for households without unusual needs are
40 or 50 US gallons with a burner rated at 34,000 to 40,000
Some models offer "High Efficiency and Ultra Low NOx" emissions.
popular arrangement where higher flow rates are required for
limited periods is to heat water in a pressure vessel that
can withstand a hydrostatic
pressure close to that of the incoming mains supply. In
North America, these vessels are called hot water tanks,
and may incorporate an electrical resistance heater, an air
source heat pump,
or a gas or oil burner that heats water directly.
hot-water space heating boilers are installed, DHW
cylinders are usually heated indirectly by primary water
from the boiler, or by an electric immersion
heater (often as backup to the boiler). In the UK these
vessels are called unvented cylinders. In the US, when
connected to a boiler they are called indirect-fired water
to tankless heaters, storage water heaters have the advantage
of using energy (gas or electricity) at a relatively slow
rate, storing the heat for later use. The disadvantage is
that over time, the water inside the tank cools down, activating
the heating system to heat the water back up. Additionally,
when heavy use exhausts the hot water, there is a significant
delay before hot water is available again. Larger tanks tend
to provide hot water with less temperature fluctuation at
moderate flow rates.
storage water heaters in the United States and New Zealand
are typically vertical, cylindrical tanks, usually standing
on the floor or on a platform raised a short distance above
the floor. Volume storage water heaters in Spain are typically
horizontal. In India, they are mainly vertical. In apartments
they can be mounted in the ceiling space over laundry-utility
rooms. In Australia, gas and electric outdoor tank heaters
have mainly been used (with high temperatures to increase
effective capacity), but solar roof tanks are becoming fashionable.
zone countries, where ambient temperature are seasonally colder,
tiny point-of-use (POU) electric storage water heaters
with capacities ranging from 8 to 32 liters (2 to 6 gallons)
are made for installation in kitchen and bath cabinets or
on the wall above a sink. They typically use low power heating
elements, about 1 kW to 1.5 kW, and can provide
hot water long enough for hand washing, or, if plumbed into
an existing hot water line, until hot water arrives from a
remote high capacity water heater. They may be used when retrofitting
a pump and recirculating plumbing in a building is too costly
or impractical. Since they maintain water temperature thermostatically,
they can only supply a continuous flow of hot water at extremely
low flow rates, unlike high-capacity tankless heaters.
countries, like Singapore and India, a storage water heater
may vary from 10 L to 35 L. Smaller water heaters
are sufficient, as ambient weather temperatures and incoming
water temperature are moderate.
inside of a hydraulically
operated two-stage tankless heater, heated by 3-phase
electric power. The copper tank contains heating elements
water heaters—also called instantaneous, continuous
flow, inline, flash, on-demand, or
instant-on water heaters—are gaining in popularity. These high-power water heaters
instantly heat water as it flows through the device, and do
not retain any water internally except for what is in the
heat exchanger coil. Copper
heat exchangers are preferred in these units because of
their high thermal conductivity and ease of fabrication.
heaters may be installed throughout a household at more than
one point-of-use (POU), far from a central water heater, or
larger centralized models may still be used to provide all
the hot water requirements for an entire house. The main advantages
of tankless water heaters are a plentiful continuous flow
of hot water (as compared to a limited flow of continuously
heated hot water from conventional tank water heaters), and
potential energy savings under some conditions.
appliances for quickly heating water for DHW are known in
North America as tankless or on demand water
heaters. In some places, they are called multipoint heaters,
geysers or ascots. In Australia and New Zealand
they are called instantaneous hot water units. In Argentina
they are called "calefones". In that country "calefones" use
gas instead of electricity. A similar wood-fired appliance
was known as the chip
arrangement where hot-water space heating is employed, is
for a boiler to also heat potable water, providing a continuous
supply of DHW without extra equipment. Appliances that can
supply both space-heating and DHW are called combination
(or combi) boilers. Though on-demand heaters provide
a continuous supply of DHW, the rate they can produce it at
is limited by the thermodynamics of heating water from the
available fuel supplies.
name implies, an electric
heating element is incorporated into such shower heads
to instantly heat the water as it flows through. These self-heating
shower heads are specialized point-of-use (POU) tankless water
heaters, and are widely used in some countries.
in Brazil in the 1930s and used frequently since the 1940s,
the electric shower is a home appliance often seen in South
American countries due to the higher costs of gas distribution.
Earlier models were made of chromed copper or brass, which
were expensive, but since 1970, units made of injected plastics
are popular due to low prices similar to that of a hair dryer.
Electric showers have a simple electric system, working like
a coffee maker, but with a larger water flow. A flow switch
turns on the device when water flows through it. Once the
water is stopped, the device turns off automatically. An ordinary
electric shower often has three heat settings: low (2.5 kW),
high (5.5 kW) or cold (0 W) to use when a central
heater system is available or in hot seasons.
consumption of electric showers in the maximum heating setting
is about 5.5 kW for 120 V and 7.5 kW for 220 V.
The lower costs with electric showers compared to the higher
costs with boilers is due to the time of use: an electric
shower uses energy only while the water flows, while a boiler
works many times a day to keep a quantity of standing water
hot for use throughout the day and night. Moreover, the transfer
of electric energy to the water in an electric shower head
is very efficient, approaching 100%. Therefore, electric showers
may save energy compared to gas or electric central heaters.
A 20-minute bath by an electric shower can cost about US$0.10,
but the same bath using water from a gas heater can cost three
times as much. This difference can be larger where the electricity
is cheaper than the gas supply, or in tropical countries where
the maximum power consumption is required only during the
is a wide range of electric showers, with various types of
heating controls. The heating element of an electric shower
is typically a coiled nichrome
resistance wire immersed in the water stream. In better versions
the heating element may be sheathed and electrically isolated,
like the ones used in oil heaters, radiators or clothes irons,
providing more safety. Due to electrical safety standards,
modern electric showers are made of plastic instead of using
metallic casings like in the past. As an electrical appliance
that uses more electric current than a washer or a dryer,
an electric shower installation requires careful planning,
and generally is intended to be wired directly from the electrical
distribution box with a dedicated circuit
breaker and ground system. A poorly installed system with
old aluminum wires or bad connections may be dangerous, as
the wires can overheat or electric current may leak via the
water stream through the body of the user to earth.
solar heater panels with integrated storage tank
solar thermal collector, viewed from roof-level
powered water heaters are being used. Their solar collectors
are installed outside dwellings, typically on the roof or
walls or nearby, and the potable hot
water storage tank is typically a pre-existing or new
conventional water heater, or a water heater specifically
designed for solar thermal.
basic solar thermal models are the direct-gain type, in which
the potable water is directly sent into the collector. Many
such systems are said to use integrated collector storage
(ICS), as direct-gain systems typically have storage integrated
within the collector. Heating water directly is inherently
more efficient than heating it indirectly via heat exchangers,
but such systems offer very limited freeze protection (if
any), can easily heat water to temperatures unsafe for domestic
use, and ICS systems suffer from severe heat loss on cold
nights and cold, cloudy days.
indirect or closed-loop systems do not allow
potable water through the panels, but rather pump a heat transfer
fluid (either water or a water/antifreeze mix) through the
panels. After collecting heat in the panels, the heat transfer
fluid flows through a heat
exchanger, transferring its heat to the potable hot water.
When the panels are cooler than the storage tank or when the
storage tank has already reached its maximum temperature,
the controller in closed-loop systems stops the circulation
pumps. In a drainback system, the water drains into
a storage tank contained in conditioned or semi-conditioned
space, protected from freezing temperatures. With antifreeze
systems, however, the pump must be run if the panel
temperature gets too hot (to prevent degradation of the antifreeze)
or too cold (to prevent the water/antifreeze mixture from
panel collectors are typically used in closed-loop systems.
Flat panels, which often resemble skylights,
are the most durable type of collector, and they also have
the best performance for systems designed for temperatures
within 56 °C (100 °F) of ambient
temperature. Flat panels are regularly used in both pure
water and antifreeze systems.
type of solar collector is the evacuated tube collector,
which are intended for cold climates that do not experience
severe hail and/or applications where high temperatures are
needed (i.e., over 94 °C [201 °F]). Placed in a
rack, evacuated tube collectors form a row of glass tubes,
each containing absorption fins attached to a central heat-conducting
rod (copper or condensation-driven). The evacuated
description refers to the vacuum created in the glass tubes
during the manufacturing process, which results in very low
heat loss and lets evacuated tube systems achieve extreme
temperatures, far in excess of water's boiling point.
like Iceland and
and other volcanic regions, water heating may be done using
heating, rather than combustion.
a space-heating water boiler is employed, the traditional
arrangement in the UK is to use boiler-heated (primary)
water to heat potable (secondary) water contained in
a cylindrical vessel (usually made of copper)—which is supplied
from a cold water storage vessel or container, usually in
the roof space of the building. This produces a fairly steady
supply of DHW (Domestic Hot Water) at low static
pressure head but usually with a good flow.
In most other parts of the world, water heating appliances
do not use a cold water storage vessel or container, but heat
water at pressures close to that of the incoming mains
(POU) vs. Centralized hot water
design decision may be made between point-of-use and centralized
water heaters. Centralized water heaters are more traditional,
and are still a good choice for small buildings. For larger
buildings with intermittent or occasional hot water use, multiple
POU water heaters may be a better choice, since they can reduce
long waits for hot water to arrive from a remote heater. The
decision where to locate the water heater(s) is only partially
independent of the decision of a tanked vs. tankless water
heater, or the choice of energy source for the heat.
improvements to water heaters include check valve devices
at their inlet and outlet, cycle timers, electronic ignition
in the case of fuel-using models, sealed air intake systems
in the case of fuel-using models, and pipe insulation. The
sealed air-intake system types are sometimes called "band-joist"
intake units. "High-efficiency" condensing units can convert
up to 98% of the energy in the fuel to heating the water.
The exhaust gases of combustion are cooled and are mechanically
either through the roof or through an exterior wall. At high
efficiencies a drain must be supplied to handle the water
condensed out of the combustion products, which are primarily
carbon dioxide and water vapor.
plumbing in the UK, the space-heating boiler is set up to
heat a separate hot water cylinder or water heater
for potable hot water. Such water heaters are often fitted
with an auxiliary electrical immersion heater for use
if the boiler is out of action for a time. Heat from the space-heating
boiler is transferred to the water heater vessel/container
by means of a heat exchanger, and the boiler operates at a
higher temperature than the potable hot water supply. Most
potable water heaters in North America are completely separate
from the space heating units, due to the popularity of HVAC/forced
air systems in North America.
combustion water heaters manufactured since 2003 in the United
States have been redesigned to resist ignition of flammable
vapors and incorporate a thermal cutoff switch, per ANSI
Z21.10.1. The first feature attempts to prevent vapors from
flammable liquids and gases in the vicinity of the heater
from being ignited and thus causing a house fire or explosion.
The second feature prevents tank overheating due to unusual
combustion conditions. These safety requirements were made
in response to homeowners storing, or spilling, gasoline
or other flammable liquids near their water heaters and causing
fires. Since most of the new designs incorporate some type
arrestor screen, they require monitoring to make sure
they don't become clogged with lint or dust, reducing the
availability of air for combustion. If the flame arrestor
becomes clogged, the thermal cutoff may act to shut down the
wetback heater (NZ), or back boiler (UK), is
a simple household secondary water heater using incidental
heat. It typically consists of a hot water pipe running behind
or stove (rather than
water storage), and has no facility to limit the heating.
Modern wetbacks may run the pipe in a more sophisticated design
to assist heat-exchange.
These designs are being forced out by government efficiency
regulations that do not count the energy used to heat water
as 'efficiently' used.
of water heaters used in the past
water heater, 1917
not very popular in North America, another type of water heater
developed in Europe predated the storage model. In London,
England, in 1868, a painter named Benjamin Waddy Maughan invented
the first instantaneous domestic water heater that didn't
use solid fuel.
Named the geyser
after an Icelandic gushing hot spring, Maughan's invention
made cold water at the top flow through pipes that were heated
by hot gases from a burner at the bottom. Hot water then flowed
into a sink or tub. The invention was somewhat dangerous because
there was no flue to remove heated gases from the bathroom.
A water heater is still sometimes called a geyser in
the UK. The terms electric water boiler, electric
dispensing pot or electric water urn are also commonly
invention influenced the work of a Norwegian mechanical engineer
Ruud. The first automatic, storage tank-type gas water
was invented around 1889 by Ruud after he immigrated to Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania (US). The Ruud Manufacturing Company, still
in existence today, made many advancements in tank-type and
tankless water heater design and operation.
tankless condensing boiler with hot water storage tank
typically enters residences in the US at about 10 °C
(50 °F), depending on latitude and season. Hot water
temperatures of 50 °C (122 °F) are usual for dish-washing,
laundry and showering, which requires that the heater raise
the water temperature about 40 °C (72 °F) if the
hot water is mixed with cold water at the point of use. The
Plumbing Code reference shower flow rate is 2.5 US gallons
(9.5 L) per minute. Sink and dishwasher usages range
from 1–3 US gallons (3.8–11.4 L) per minute.
gas in the US is measured in CCF (100 cubic feet), which is
converted to a standardized heat content unit called the therm,
equal to 100,000 British
thermal units (BTU). A BTU is the energy required to raise
one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. A US gallon of
water weighs 8.3 pounds (3.8 kg). So, to raise 60-gallon
worth of 40 °C (104 °F) water up to 50 °C (122 °F)
would require 60 × 8.3 × (122 - 50)
= 35856 BTU, or approximately 0.359 CCF
(35856/100,000), at 88% efficiency. A 157,000 BTU/h heater
(as might exist in a tankless heater) would take 15.6 minutes
to do this, at 88% efficiency. At $1 per therm,
the cost of the gas would be about 41 cents.
a typical 60 gallon tank electric water heater has a 4500
watt (15,355 BTU) heating element, which at 100% efficient
results in a heating time of about 2.34 hours. At 16 cents/kWh
the electricity would cost $1.68.
efficiencies of water heaters in residential use can vary
greatly, particularly depending on manufacturer and model.
However, electric heaters tend to be slightly more efficient
(not counting power station losses) with recovery efficiency
(how efficiently energy transfers to the water) reaching about
98%. Gas fired heaters have maximum recovery efficiencies
of only about 82-94% (the remaining heat is lost with the
flue gasses). Overall energy
factors can be as low as 80% for electric and 50% for
gas systems. Natural gas and propane tank water heaters with
energy factors of 62% or greater, as well as electric tank
water heaters with energy factors of 93% or greater, are considered
high-efficiency units. Energy
Star-qualified natural gas and propane tank water heaters
(as of September 2010) have energy factors of 67% or higher,
which is usually achieved using an intermittent pilot together
with an automatic flue damper, baffle blowers, or power venting.
Direct electric resistance tank water heaters are not included
in the Energy Star program, however, the Energy Star program
does include electric heat
pump units with energy factors of 200% or higher. Tankless
gas water heaters (as of 2015) must have an energy factor
of 90% or higher for Energy Star qualification. Since electricity
production itself today has efficiency levels ranging from
only 15% to slightly over 55% (combined
cycle gas turbine), with around 40% typical for thermal
power stations, direct resistance electric water heating is
typically the least energy efficient option. However, use
of a heat pump can make electric water heaters much more energy
efficient and lead to a decrease in carbon dioxide emissions,
even more so if a renewable source of electricity is used.
it takes a great deal of energy to heat water, as one may
experience when waiting to boil a gallon of water on a stove.
For this reason, tankless on-demand water heaters require
a powerful energy source. A standard 120 V / 15-ampere rated
wall electric outlet, by comparison, only sources enough power
to warm a disappointingly small amount of water: about 0.17
US gallons (0.64 L) per minute at 40 °C (72 °F)
16, 2015, as part of the National
Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA), new minimum
standards for efficiency of residential water heaters set
by the United
States Department of Energy went into effect.
All new gas storage tank water heaters with capacities smaller
than 55 US gallons (210 l; 46 imp gal) sold
in the United States in 2015 or later shall have an energy
factor of at least 60% (for 50-US-gallon units, higher for
smaller units), increased from the pre-2015 minimum standard
of 58% energy factor for 50-US-gallon gas units. Electric
storage tank water heaters with capacities less than 55 US
gallons sold in the United States shall have an energy factor
of at least 95%, increased from the pre-2015 minimum standard
of 90% for 50-US-gallon electric units.
the 2015 standard, for the first time, storage water heaters
with capacities of 55 US gallons or larger now face stricter
efficiency requirements than those of 50 US gallons or less.
Under the pre-2015 standard, a 75-US-gallon (280 l; 62 imp gal)
gas storage water heater with a nominal input of 75,000 British
thermal units (79,000 kJ) or less was able to have an
energy factor as low as 53%, while under the 2015 standard,
the minimum energy factor for a 75-US-gallon gas storage tank
water heater is now 74%, which can only be achieved by using
condensing technology. Storage water heaters with a nominal
input of 75,000 btu or greater are not currently affected
by these requirements, since energy factor is not defined
for such units. An 80-US-gallon (300 l; 67 imp gal)
electric storage tank water heater was able to have a minimum
energy factor of 86% under the pre-2015 standard, while under
the 2015 standard, the minimum energy factor for an 80-gallon
electric storage tank water heater is now 197%, which is only
possible with heat
pump technology. It should be noted that this efficiency
rating measures efficiency at the point of use. Depending
on how electricity is generated, overall efficiency may be
much lower. For example, in a traditional coal plant, only
about 30-35% of the energy in the coal ends up as electricity
on the other end of the generator.
Losses on the electrical grid (including line losses and voltage
transformation losses) reduce electrical efficiency further.
According to data from the Energy Information Administration,
transmission and distribution losses in 2005 consumed 6.1%
of net generation.
In contrast, 90% of natural gas’ energy value is delivered
to the consumer.
(In neither case is the energy expended exploring, developing
and extracting coal or natural gas resources included in the
quoted efficiency numbers.) Gas tankless water heaters shall
have an energy factor of 82% or greater under the 2015 standards,
which corresponds to the pre-2015 Energy Star standard.
safety valve installed atop a tank-type water heater (US)
heaters potentially can explode and cause significant damage,
injury, or death if certain safety devices are not installed.
A safety device called a temperature
and pressure relief (T&P or TPR) valve, is normally
fitted on the top of the water heater to dump water if the
temperature or pressure becomes too high. Most plumbing codes
require that a discharge pipe be connected to the valve to
direct the flow of discharged hot water to a drain, typically
a nearby floor
drain, or outside the living space. Some building codes
allow the discharge pipe to terminate in the garage.
If a gas
or propane fired water heater is installed in a garage
or basement, many plumbing codes require that it be elevated
at least 18 in (46 cm) above the floor to reduce
the potential for fire or explosion due to spillage or leakage
of combustible liquids in the garage. Furthermore, certain
local codes mandate that tank-type heaters in new and retrofit
installations must be secured to an adjacent wall by a strap
or anchor to prevent tipping over and breaking the water and
gas pipes in the event of an earthquake.
houses where the water heater is part of the space heating
boiler, and plumbing codes allow, some plumbers install an
automatic gas shutoff (such as the "Watts 210") in addition
to a TPR valve. When the device senses that the temperature
reaches 99 °C (210 °F), it shuts off the gas supply
and prevents further heating.expansion
tank or exterior pressure relief valve must be installed
to prevent pressure buildup in the plumbing from rupturing
pipes, valves, or the water heater. In addition, an
injury to right hand
is a serious concern with any water heater. Human
skin burns quickly
at high temperature, in less than 5 seconds at 60 °C
(140 °F), but much slower at 53 °C (127 °F)
— it takes a full minute for a second
degree burn. Older people and children often receive serious
scalds due to disabilities or slow reaction
In the United States and elsewhere it is common practice to
put a tempering
valve on the outlet of the water heater. The result of
mixing hot and cold water via a tempering valve is referred
to as "tempered water".
valve mixes enough cold water with the hot water from the
heater to keep the outgoing water temperature fixed at a more
moderate temperature, often set to 50 °C (122 °F).
Without a tempering valve, reduction of the water heater's
setpoint temperature is the most direct way to reduce scalding.
However, for sanitation, hot water is needed at a temperature
that can cause scalding. This may be accomplished by using
a supplemental heater in an appliance that requires hotter
water. Most residential dishwashing
machines, for example, include an internal electric heating
element for increasing the water temperature above that provided
by a domestic water heater.
colonies of Legionella pneumophila (indicated by
safety issues affect water heater temperature—the risk of
scalding from excessively hot water greater than 55 °C
(131 °F), and the risk of incubating bacteria colonies,
in water that is not hot enough to kill them. Both risks are
potentially life-threatening and are balanced by setting the
water heater's thermostat to 55 °C (131 °F). The
European Guidelines for Control and Prevention of Travel Associated
Legionnaires’ Disease recommend that hot water should be stored
at 60 °C (140 °F) and distributed so that a temperature
of at least 50 °C (122 °F) and preferably 55 °C
(131 °F) is achieved within one minute at points of use.
is a dishwasher without a booster heater, it may require a
water temperature within a range of 57–60 °C (135–140 °F)
for optimum cleaning,
but tempering valves set to no more than 55 °C (131 °F)
can be applied to faucets to avoid scalding. Tank temperatures
above 60 °C (140 °F) may produce limescale
deposits, which could later harbor bacteria, in the water
tank. Higher temperatures may also increase etching
of glassware in the dishwasher.
are not a reliable guide to the internal temperature of the
tank. Gas-fired water tanks may have no temperature calibration
shown. An electric thermostat shows the temperature at the
elevation of the thermostat, but water lower in the tank can
be considerably cooler. An outlet thermometer is a better
indication of water temperature.
renewable energy industry (solar and heat pumps, in particular)
the conflict between daily thermal Legionella control and
high temperatures, which may drop system performance, is subject
to heated debate. In a paper seeking a green exemption from
normal Legionellosis safety standards, Europe's top CEN solar
thermal technical committee TC 312 asserts that a 50% fall
in performance would occur if solar water heating systems
were heated to the base daily. However some solar
simulator analysis work using Polysun 5 suggests that
an 11% energy penalty is a more likely figure. Whatever the
context, both energy efficiency and scalding safety requirements
push in the direction of considerably lower water temperatures
than the legionella pasteurization
temperature of around 60 °C (140 °F).
legionella can be safely and easily controlled with good design
and engineering protocols. For instance raising the temperature
of water heaters once a day or even once every few days to
55 °C (131 °F) at the coldest part of the water
heater for 30 minutes effectively controls legionella. In
all cases and in particular energy efficient applications,
Legionnaires' disease is more often than not the result of
engineering design issues that do not take into consideration
the impact of stratification or low flow.
also possible to control Legionella risks by chemical treatment
of the water. This technique allows lower water temperatures
to be maintained in the pipework without the associated Legionella
risk. The benefit of lower pipe temperatures is that the heat
loss rate is reduced and thus the energy consumption is reduced.
- Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Search.eb.com.
search results for "natural gas water heater" at Home
Retrieved 1 October 2015.
Hung Yin. "18-year-old
dies after getting electrocuted during shower at Hougang
flat". The New Paper.
Retrieved 2 October 2014.
rules could threaten wetback fires". The New Zealand
Herald. 24 August 2005.
History of Water Heater Technology". Mammothplumbing.posterous.com.
Ruud". Ruud Manufacturing Company. Atlanta,
GA, USA: Ruud Manufacturing Company.
Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for
Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and
Pool Heaters; Final Rule" (PDF).
States Department of Energy. April 16, 2010.
Retrieved September 7, 2012.
Efficiency in the Power Grid" (PDF).
nema.org. National Electrical Manufacturers Association.
Retrieved 1 October 2015.
Gas 101" (PDF).
Enbridge Gas New Brunswick (Canada). Archived from
on October 2, 2015.
Retrieved 1 October 2015.
Can Be Dynamite 1951 article with illustrations
on basics of water heater safety pressure relief valve
Plumbing Code" (PDF).
International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials.
pp. 58–59. Retrieved
23 Feb 2010.
Domestic Water Heating
Design Manual (2nd Edition), American Society of Plumbing
Engineers (ASPE), 2003,ISBN
978-1-891255-18-2 pages 13-14
Guidelines for Control and Prevention of Travel Associated
Legionnaires’ Disease" (PDF).
European Working Group for Legionella Infections. 2005-01-01.
Archived from the
on 2007-09-22. Retrieved
Consumer's Guide to Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy:
Lower Water Heating Temperature for Energy Savings".
U.S. Department of Energy. 2005-09-12.
Donald R. Wulfinghoff Energy
Efficiency ManualEnergy Institute Press, 1999 ISBN
0-9657926-7-6 pages 458-460
Loss in hot water systems
MISSION VIEJO CA:
"Make Living Your Mission"
Location of Mission Viejo within Orange
in the United States
| • Type
| • Mayor
| • City
| • Total
||18.123 sq mi
| • Land
||17.739 sq mi
| • Water
||0.384 sq mi
(0.995 km2) 2.12%
| • Total
| • Estimate (2013)
| • Density
| • Summer
is a city in Orange
in the Saddleback
Valley. Mission Viejo is considered one of the largest master-planned
communities ever built under a single project in the United States,
and is rivaled only by Highlands
Ranch, Colorado, in its size. Its population as of 2014 was estimated
is suburban in nature and
culture. The city is mainly residential, although there are a number
of offices and businesses within its city limits. The city is known
for its picturesque tree-lined neighborhoods, receiving recognition
from the National
Arbor Day Foundation. The city's name is a reference to Rancho
Mission Viejo, a large Spanish land grant from which the community
was purchased by John Forster, a Mexican also known as Don Juan.Mexican-American
War, Forster provided fresh horses to United States military forces
which were used on the march of San Diego to retake Los Angeles. During the
was a hilly region primarily used as cattle and sheep grazing
land, since it was of little use to farmers. This city was one of
the last regions of Orange County to be urbanized due to its geologic
complexity. In 1960, early developers dismissed most of the land in
Mission Viejo as simply "undevelopable".
Bren, an urban planner who later became the president of the Irvine
Company, drafted a master plan which placed roads in the valleys
and houses on the hills, and contoured to the geography of the area.
The plan worked, and by 1980 much of the city of Mission Viejo was
completed. During the late 1970s and the 1980s, houses in Mission
Viejo were in such high demand that housing tracts often sold out
before construction even began on them.
The houses and shopping centers in the city are almost uniformly designed
in a Spanish mission style, with "adobe"-like stucco walls and barrel-tile
roofs. Many point to Mission Viejo as the first and largest manifestation
of Bren's obsession with Spanish architecture. Bren's company was
also the creator of the developments in Irvine, and Newport Beach.
The company expanded its operations and went on to build the Lakes
project in Tempe,
Viejo Aurora in Colorado and was the initial master planner of
Ranch, both in the Denver Metropolitan area.
The seal of the
city of Mission Viejo was designed and drawn by Carl Glassford, an
artist and former resident of the city.
is located at 33°36'46?N
117.65611°W (33.612739, -117.656038).
According to the
States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.1 square
miles (47 km2). 17.7 square miles (46 km2)
of it is land and 0.4 square miles (1.0 km2) of it
(2.12%) is water. A significant portion of the surface water is held
Mission Viejo, an artificial lake stretching approximately one
mile from Olympiad Road to Alicia Parkway along Marguerite Parkway.
It is bordered
Forest on the northwest, Trabuco
Canyon on the northeast, Rancho
Santa Margarita and Ladera
Ranch on the east, San
Juan Capistrano on the south, and Laguna
Niguel and Laguna
Hills on the west.
enjoys a borderline semi-arid/Mediterranean
climate classification BSh/Csa), with mild temperatures
and plentiful sunshine year-round. Rainfall totals, which average
around 14 inches (355 millimetres) annually are focused primarily
in the months from November to March. Summer is very dry and virtually
rainless, however thunderstorms do rarely occur. Due to the city's
proximity to the ocean, nighttime and morning clouds are fairly common,
especially in the months of May and June, a weather phenomenon commonly
known as June
Gloom or May Gray.
Like most of Southern
California, the city is prone to dry Santa Ana winds, which bring
hot air from inland and punctuate the normally mild temperatures with
noticeable jumps. For example, temperatures have reached highs of
90 °F (32 °C) and above throughout many months of the year,
occasionally into the autumn months. Snowfall within city limits is
very rare, however the nearby Saddleback
Mountains receive a dusting of snow every few winters. Since 2012,
California is experiencing the worst drought in a century.
|Climate data for Mission Viejo, California
|Average high °F (°C)
|Average low °F (°C)
U.S. Decennial Census
United States Census
reported that Mission Viejo had a population of 93,305. The population
density was 5,148.3 people per square mile (1,987.8/km²). The
racial makeup of Mission Viejo was 74,493 (79.8%) White
(68.9% Non-Hispanic White),
1,210 (1.3%) African
American, 379 (0.4%) Native
American, 8,462 (9.1%) Asian,
153 (0.2%) Pacific
Islander, 4,332 (4.6%) from other
races, and 4,276 (4.6%) from two or more races. Hispanic
of any race were 15,877 persons (17.0%).
The Census reported
that 92,363 people (99.0% of the population) lived in households,
859 (0.9%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 83 (0.1%)
There were 33,208
households, out of which 11,767 (35.4%) had children under the age
of 18 living in them, 20,792 (62.6%) were opposite-sex
married couples living together, 2,967 (8.9%) had a female householder
with no husband present, 1,306 (3.9%) had a male householder with
no wife present. There were 1,211 (3.6%) unmarried
opposite-sex partnerships, and 225 (0.7%) same-sex
married couples or partnerships. 6,314 households (19.0%) were
made up of individuals and 2,949 (8.9%) had someone living alone who
was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78.
There were 25,065 families
(75.5% of all households); the average family size was 3.18.
was spread out with 21,270 people (22.8%) under the age of 18, 7,852
people (8.4%) aged 18 to 24, 21,648 people (23.2%) aged 25 to 44,
29,003 people (31.1%) aged 45 to 64, and 13,532 people (14.5%) who
were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.2 years. For
every 100 females there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age
18 and over, there were 92.2 males.
There were 34,228
housing units at an average density of 1,888.6 per square mile (729.2/km²),
of which 25,859 (77.9%) were owner-occupied, and 7,349 (22.1%) were
occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.9%; the rental
vacancy rate was 4.9%. 72,390 people (77.6% of the population) lived
in owner-occupied housing units and 19,973 people (21.4%) lived in
rental housing units.
According to the
2010 United States Census, Mission Viejo had a median household income
of $96,088, with 5.3% of the population living below the federal poverty
of Lake Mission Viejo and the surrounding developments (2014)
The Mission Viejo-Lake
Clemente urban area (which also includes the cities of Aliso
Santa Margarita and San
Juan Capistrano) had a population of 583,681 at the 2010 Census.
At the 2000 census,
there were 93,102 people, 32,449 households and 25,212 families residing
in the city. The population
density was 4,990.1 inhabitants per square mile (1,926.4/km²).
There were 32,986 housing units at an average density of 1,767.9 per
square mile (682.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 79.7% white,
American, 0.4% Native
American, 8.3% Asian,
Islander, 6.2% from other
races, and 3.7% from two or more races. Hispanic
of any race were 15.9% of the population. There were 32,449 households
out of which 39.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them,
66.1% were married couples
living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present,
and 22.3% were non-families. 17.3% of all households were made up
of individuals and 6.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years
of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average
family size was 3.22.
was 27.1% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to
44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.7
males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.7 males.
According to a
2008 estimate, the median
household income was $93,330, and the median family income was
Males had a median income of $74,703 versus $53,196 for females. The
income for the city was $41,459. 1.9% of families and 4.4% of
the population were below the poverty
line, including 5.1% of those under age 18 and 6% of those age
65 or over.
Hospital is the largest hospital in south Orange County and serves
as the area's regional trauma center. It also offers one of two Children's
Hospital of Orange County locations providing care for children.
has numerous recreational areas such as the Norman P. Murray Community
and Senior Center there are about two parks per square mile. The city
has three golf courses, The Mission Viejo Country Club, Casta del
Sol Golf Course, and the Arroyo Trabuco Golf Club. At the center of
the city is a man-made lake, Lake Mission
Viejo, a private association for Mission Viejo residents with
custom waterfront homes, condominiums, boat and paddle board rentals,
fishing, and swim beaches. Lake Mission Viejo also holds events such
as music concerts and movie screenings, usually complimentary for
members and typically during the summer season.
Shops at Mission Viejo and the Kaleidescope Courtyards serve as
the city's two main shopping, dining and entertainment centers. Both
cater to an upper middle class customer demographic and feature family-oriented
facilities and services.
also hosts a number of athletic events such as 5K runs and triathlons
throughout the year. The city holds a variety of annually recurring
events to celebrate holidays including a street fair and fireworks
for Independence Day and public decorations and interactive activities
for children during the winter holiday season featuring representation
for multiple popular religions.
According to the
City's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,
the top employers in the city were:
Callender's has its corporate headquarters in the Marie Callender's
Corporate Support Center in Mission Viejo.
has a major youth athletic facility, Mission Viejo Youth Athletic
Park. The park consists of eight baseball fields and five soccer fields.
It is host to Little
League District 68, AYSO
Region 84, and four competitive soccer clubs: Pateadores Soccer
Club, Mission Viejo Soccer Club, West Coast Futbol Club, and Saddleback
United Soccer Club.
Viejo Nadadores Swimming and Mission Viejo Nadadores Diving Team
won a string of national championships and produced a number of Olympians
and world record holders in the 1970s and 1980s. Olympians included
Goodell, Larson Jenson, Maryanne Graham, Nicole Kramer, Casy Converse,
Marcia Morey, Dara
Torres, and Greg
hosted the Road
Cycling Events during the 1984
Summer Olympics held in Los Angeles. The old O'Neill Road was
renamed Olympiad Rd. in honor of the Olympic events in 1984.
There is also
a soccer facility, now used by the town's youth soccer program, that
was used as a training field by the United States men's national soccer
team before and during the 1994
FIFA World Cup, hosted by the United States. Mission Viejo is
the largest AYSO Region in the country.
College ballpark hosted the Mission
Viejo Vigilantes minor league baseball team of the Western
Baseball League from 1996–2001. Now the ballpark has a semi-pro
collegiate team, the Orange County Fire.
is also the hometown of NFL
Twins pitcher Phil
Hughes, and Chicago
White Sox first baseman Adam
LaRoche, former Milwaukee
Brewers pitcher Don
Red Sox outfielder Allen
Shot Season 4 Champion Chris
Cheng, and PBA Tour Champion Scott Norton.
Viejo Library was built in 1996-97 and expanded in 2000-02
is served by two school districts, the Capistrano
Unified School District and Saddleback
Valley Unified School District. Capistrano Unified serves the
eastern, northeastern, and southern portions of the city with eight
schools. As of 2006, all high school students in the Capistrano Unified
portion of Mission Viejo attend Capistrano
Valley High School. Students from western Mission Viejo (north
of Oso Parkway and west of Marguerite until Alicia Parkway) attend
Saddleback Valley's Mission
Viejo High School. Far northern Mission Viejo attends Saddleback
Hills High School, though most of that school has students from
Rancho Santa Margarita and Lake Forest. A few residents attend Tesoro
High School in Las Flores or the private Santa
Margarita Catholic High School in Rancho Santa Margarita.
High School, Mira Monte High School, and Pathfinder are continuation
and adult schools within the city. Silverado High School provides
a day school environment while Mira Monte, which shares the same campus,
is strictly independent study.
College, near The
Shops at Mission Viejo and Capistrano
Valley High School, is a large community college in the southern
half of the city. In addition, the University
of California, Irvine, Chapman
University of America, and California
State University, Fullerton (Irvine
Campus), are nearby in adjacent cities.
La Tierra Elementary
shut down in June 2009 due to budget cuts. It was chosen due to its
small size and minimal student body. The school will remain closed
until further notice. Mission Viejo residents refer to La Tierra as
"The Little School with a Big Heart". Students there are reassigned
to Del Cerro Elementary.
the city's first elementary school, closed in June 2009 also due to
budget cuts in SVUSD. Students in the Deane Home community surrounding
the school will be moved to nearby De Portola Elementary. Students
living in the homes north of the lake will be moved to Melinda Heights
Elementary in Rancho Santa Margarita.
Aldrich (born 1970), actress
J. Ames (1921–2011), illustrator and writer known for the
Draw 50... learn-to-draw books
Craig (born 1984), infielder/outfielder for the Boston
Fagan (born 1956), syndicated cartoonist for Drabble
Finneran (born 1976), Wide Receiver for Atlanta
Falcons in the NFL
Fisher (born 1973), musician, drummer and percussionist
Foudy (born 1971), soccer player, member of National
Soccer Hall of Fame
Friedman (1951–2011), singer and songwriter
George (born 1982), Miss
Arkansas USA 2007
Goodell (born 1959), swimmer, gold medalist in 1976
Summer Olympics and world-record holder
Grannis (born 1985), singer and songwriter
Harvey (born 1984), association football player
Henrie (born 1989), actor, Wizards
of Waverly Place
J. Hinshaw (born 1923), member of the U.S.
House of Representatives (1975–1977)
Hughes (born 1986), Major
League Baseball pitcher for the Minnesota
"Rampage" Jackson (born 1978), fighter, former UFC Light-Heavyweight
Griffith Joyner (1959–1998), track-and-field gold medalist
Keilar (born 1980), CNN
correspondent, Mission Viejo High School homecoming queen 1998
F. Lally (born 1934), aerospace engineer, photographer, entrepreneur
LaRoche (born 1979), Major
League Baseball first baseman for the Chicago
Lee (1907–1993), burlesque comic and children's television
Leslie (1926–2000), actress
López-Alegría (born 1958), astronaut
Louganis (born 1960), Olympic gold medalist in diving
- Scott Manville
(born 1971), Television Producer and Founder of the Television
Marinovich (born 1969), quarterback for USC and in National
McClung (1972–2006), first female United States Marine Corps
officer killed in combat during the Iraq War
Mead (born 1987), actor
Miller (born 1980), mixed martial artist
Munck (born 1996), actor, iCarly
"Peter" Peng (born 1993) better known as "Doublelift", professional
League of Legends AD Carry for Team
Persinger (born 1959), sculptor
Sanchez (born 1986), quarterback for USC and NFL's New
York Jets and Philadelphia
Sandeno (born 1983), swimmer
(1970–1994), pornographic actress
Scurich (born 1986), soccer player
Sherry (1935–2006), Major League Baseball relief pitcher,
MVP of 1959
Simpson (born 1991), MV Football Legend
Sorum (born 1960), drummer for Guns
N' Roses from 1990 to 1997
Swanson (born 1969), actress
Tringale (born 1987), pro golfer
Moreno Young (born 1977), actress
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September 14, 2012.
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Agency Formation Commissions.
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States Census Bureau. Retrieved
April 12, 2015.
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Orange County. Arcadia
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Retrieved March 8, 2011.
FRANK; PAULSON, WENDY (May 27, 1990). "Rebels
Dig In to Defend Last Ridge in South : Growth: The city carved
out by the Mission Viejo Co. is on edge over the developer's final
step. The company's offer of recreational land may not be enough
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Angeles Times. Retrieved
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FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "Mission
Viejo city, California – Income in the Past 12 Months (In 2008
Inflation-Adjusted Dollars)". Factfinder.census.gov.
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, 90740, Silverado 92676, Stanton, 90680, Sunset Beach 90742,
Surfside 90743, Trabuco Canyon, 92678, 92679, Tustin ,92780,
92781,92782, Villa Park, 92861, Westminster, 92683, 92684,
92685, Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887
HEATER MISSION VIEJO CA, MISSION VIEJO WATER HEATER, WATER
HEATERS MISSION VIEJO, WATER HEATER REPAIR MISSION VIEJO,
WATER HEATER REPLACEMENT MISSION VIEJO, NEW WATER HEATER MISSION
VIEJO, VOTED BEST WATER HEATERS IN ORANGE COUNTY CA, Bradford
White, Storage Water Heaters, Reservoir Water Heaters, Standard
Water Heaters, Tank Water Heaters, Replacement Water Heaters,
Tankless Water Heaters, Solar Water Heaters, Indirect Water
Heaters, Gas Water Heaters, Electric Water Heaters, Energy
Efficient Water Heaters, Energy Star Water Heaters, Garage
Water Heaters, Rancho Santa Margarita, Coto De Caza, Lake
Forest, Laguna Beach, Laguna Niguel, Laguna Hills, Laguna
Woods, Leisure World, San Juan Capistrano, Las Flores, Ladera
Ranch, Silverado Canyon, Trabucco Canyon, San Clemente, Villa
Park, Aliso Viejo, Foothill Ranch, El Toro and Mission Viejo.
Newport Beach, Newport Coast, Balboa Island, Costa Mesa
HEATER MISSION VIEJO, WATER HEATER MISSION VIEJO CA, INSTALL
WATER HEATER MISSION VIEJO
WATER HEATER MISSION VIEJO CA